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Patent Terms and Definitions
Abandon: The explicit or implicit relinquishment of a potential patent right. Simple inaction may render a patent right abandoned
Affidavit: A signed statement (filed with the patent office) putting appropriate facts or opinions on record.
Author: Writer of an article, chapter or other complete work. Some articles, proceedings, or books have multiple authors. In such cases, the first author specified in the reference may be called the primary author or the senior author. The names of the authors following that of the primary author are referred to as the secondary or co-authors. Corporations, government agencies and associations may also be listed as authors of a work.
Basic Patent: The first published patent
Beilstein: A major structure and factual database in organic chemistry.
C?: Clinical Unknown Phase from IDdb. In clinical development, but the phase is unknown.
C1: Phase I (IDdb). Initial toxicity testing in healthy volunteers (except for drugs that are potential treatments for life-threatening diseases such as cancer and HIV, which go straight into subjects suffering from the target disease).
C2: Phase II (IDdb). Small-scale testing in the target population, to assess therapeutic effects and to establish dose levels for phase III trials.
C3: Phase III (IDdb). Large-scale trials in patients, usually at several centers, double blind and randomized. May also be compared to other agents.
Citation: the examiner or author may make Citations. They comprise a list of references that are believed to be relevant prior art and which may have contributed to the "narrowing" of the original application. The examiner can also cite references from technical journals, textbooks, handbooks and sources.
Citation Counts: Citation counts are a formal acknowledgement of intellectual debt to earlier patents and previously published scientific research papers. They are an important indicator of how new patents are linked to earlier patents and scientific papers.
Claim(s): The definition of the monopoly rights that the applicant is trying to obtain for the invention. The claims become the actual monopoly that is given when/if the patent is granted.
Copyright: The legal right granted to an author, editor or publisher of an article, chapter or complete work. Copyright applies to intellectual property in a variety of artistic fields and attempts to be format-neutral.
Defensive publication: A publication and disclosure to the public of a pending patent application.
Design Patent: A type of patent covering the shape characteristics of an object
Disclosure: The first public disclosure of details of an invention. This may be: deliberately revealed outside the patent system to make the invention unpatentable, or what is described in a patent application
First to file: The applicant who is the first to file an application for an invention will be awarded the patent over all others. This law is becoming increasingly the standard for countries adhering to Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) guidelines.
First to invent: In some countries, the applicant who is the first to invent will be awarded the patent over all others.
Infringe: To make, use or sell the patented item or process within the country covered by the patent, without permission or license from the patentee.
Intellectual property: Intellectual property refers to creations — including inventions, artistic works, names and designs — that are legally protected. Intellectual property includes patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets
Inventor: Inventor names are recorded for all patents. These appear in the standard last name-initial(s) format.
Novel: A patent must be new or original. That is, the invention must never have been made in public in any way, anywhere, before the date on which the application for a patent is filed.
Novelty: The concept that the claims must be totally new. The invention must never have been made public in any way, anywhere, before the date on which the application for a patent is filed.
Patent: A patent is a document that defines the right by law for inventors and assignees to make use of and exploit their inventions for a limited period of time.
Pending: The period in which the patent office has not yet decided whether to reject or to grant a patent application, and it has not yet been withdrawn.
Status: The legal standing of a patent or patent application, i.e. whether it is pending, lapsed or still protected etc.
Term of patent: The maximum number of years that the monopoly rights conferred by the grant of a patent may last
A type of patent covering the shape characteristics of an object
One who stands for or acts on behalf of another. A patent attorney or patent agent may represent the inventors named in a patent application.
A letter from a trademark examining attorney setting forth the legal status of a trademark application. There are several types of Office actions: examiner’s amendments, priority actions, and suspension inquiry letters.
A claim that is canceled or deleted. "Canceled" is the status identifier that should be used when a claim is canceled in an application.
Consisting Essentially Of
A transitional phrase that limits the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristics of the claimed invention.
The folder into which papers for a particular application are collected and maintained. It contains a complete record of proceedings in the USPTO from the filing of the initial patent application to the issued patent.
Business reference model - an organized, hierarchical way to describe the day-to-day business operations of the Federal government.
Continuation-in-Part - an application filed during the lifetime of an earlier nonprovisional application, repeating some substantial portion or all of the earlier nonprovisional application.
Current Filing Basis
In applications under §§1 and 44 of the Trademark Act, the applicant may claim more than one basis, and may add or substitute a basis after filing the application.
May be granted to anyone who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant.
Your invention may already be patented.
Public users may perform preliminary searches of patent information in a variety of formats including on-line, microfilm, and print at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) Public Search Facility located in Alexandria, VA. State of the art computer workstations provide automated searching of patents issued from 1790 to the current week of issue. Full document text may be searched on U.S. patents issued since 1971 and OCR text from 1920 to 1970. U.S. patent images from 1790 to the present may be retrieved for viewing or printing. Some foreign patent documents are available.
For purposes of small entity determination per MPEP 509.02 - any business concern meeting the size standards set forth in 13 CFR Part 121 to be eligible for reduced patent fees.
A patent is a document that defines the right by law for inventors and assignees to make use of and exploit their inventions for a limited period of time.
WIPO is responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual property throughout the world and for the administration of various multilateral treaties dealing with the legal and administrative aspects of intellectual property.
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